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Enzymology
Enzymology

Factors That Affects Enzyme Activity

Enzymes are a group of proteins that catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in any biological system. In an organism, enzymes function as a group of interconnected chemical reactions in a metabolic pathway, fulfilling a specific cellular task. Metabolic pathways are active under normal circumstances and alter their activities in response to internal and external stimuli. Delayed response or failure to answer
Enzymology
Enzymology

Allosteric Enzymes: Characteristics, Models, and Examples

Introduction: Allosteric enzymes are a group of biocatalysts that possess common characteristics of an enzyme but do not exhibit a typical Michaelis-Menten kinetic behavior. Instead, their kinetics follow a sigmoid curve. The key to allosteric enzyme activity lies in the reversible binding to a specific molecule on a non-catalytic site of the enzyme. The binding initiates the formation of enzyme-substrate
Enzymology
Enzymology

Enzymes as Biocatalysts

Biocatalysts refer to proteins that drive all non-spontaneous chemical reactions in any biological system. Also known as enzymes, they are sensitive to temperature and pH, and act only on their specific reactants, unlike inorganic catalysts. However, their activities can be modulated and controlled. Since enzymes are also active in vitro and are organic in nature, they have been isolated, modified,
Enzymology
Enzymology

Introduction to Enzymology

Enzymology is a field of study that deals with a specific group of proteins called enzymes. These proteins accelerate specific chemical reactions in a biological system, and these reactions are essential to the growth, development, adaptation, and survival of the organism. The absence, accumulation, or dysfunctionality of an enzyme has drastic effects on the living organism, some of which are
Mastering the Microtome
Laboratory Techniques

The Cryostat-Microtome

A Glimpse into the History of a Cryostat A Cryostat is a versatile and high-quality machine that generates low temperatures for tissue sectioning. The word “Cryostat” originates from two separate Greek words “Kryos”, meaning cold, and “stat”, meaning stable. Sir James Dewar, Scottish Physicist, and Chemist are credited for the use of the very first cryostats in the 19th century.
Conduct

Halloween Special: Is There Any Scientific Evidence for the Paranormal?

With Halloween 2020 fast approaching, people might be preparing to share their favorite ghost stories once again. Sometimes, these things are just hearsay spread for fun. However, some people claim to have seen ghosts, or that their house is haunted. Can there possibly be any truth to these tales? Of course, ghosts are only one dimension of what could be
Spectrophotometer
Laboratory Techniques

Biomolecular NMR Spectroscopy

The information about the structure, interactions, and dynamics of biomolecules (protein, DNA, and RNA) is essential for understanding cellular processes. This knowledge is deconvolved by scientists and used in elucidating cellular mechanisms for finding cures for human diseases. The pharmaceutical industry, for example, uses this structural information to improve on the already discovered drugs or to find new ones. There
Spectrophotometer
Laboratory Techniques

Spin-Spin coupling in NMR

The structure of a molecule can be predicted using NMR spectroscopy. However, the interpretation of the signals in an NMR spectrum relies on several factors. One of the factors affecting the location of the peaks in an NMR spectrum is Chemical shift. The location of the peaks is important in discovering how many protons there are in a molecule, as
Spectrophotometer
Lab Basics

1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Chemical shifts

NMR spectroscopy (more information here) is an ideal technique for identifying the structure of molecules. In order to elucidate the structure of a molecule using NMR spectroscopy, we require the sample itself, a reference molecule, and a deuterated organic solvent. This mixture is taken in a thin NMR tube and loaded in the NMR machine. Briefly, in the presence of