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Lab Basics

tRNA Mutations

sgRNA construction and design

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology is a rapid, cheap, and efficient tool to edit genomes at a precise location. CRISPR technology has now been reduced to just two components: Endonuclease and g RNA. Endonuclease makes an incision at the target DNA molecule to be edited, and gRNA is a single-stranded synthetic 20 nucleotide sequence complementary to the

Lab Basics

Centrifuge Rotors: To Choose and to Maintain

As an Amazon Associate, ConductScience Inc. earns revenue from qualifying purchases Introduction Centrifugation is a laboratory technique routinely used to fractionate a given liquid mixture into single components. The basis of the technique is the application of centripetal forces to a sample by spinning it at high velocity. As a consequence, a centrifugal force originates in the opposite direction. A

Lab Basics

Microtube Homogenizer

Homogenization is a sophisticated method of achieving substance uniformity by altering and reducing particle sizes. Homogenization methods often include different processes, such as mixing, high-pressure processing, disrupting, emulsifying, dispersing, and stirring of samples (Dhankhar, 2014). Interestingly, the concept of homogenization dates back to 1899 when Auguste Gaulin acquired a patent on his homogenizing machine utilized to treat milk. Note that

The light digital microscope can be used to visualize structures as small as ~1 micron
Lab Basics

Bright Field Microscopy

Microscopy is used to visualize objects that are too small to see with the naked eye. In biology, this technique enables us to examine things like bacteria and cells at a magnification of up to 10000 times their original size (BIO1000F practical manual, 2017). In light microscopy, visible light is used to detect such small objects – with bright field

Lab Basics

Ultracentrifugation Basics and Applications

Ultracentrifugation is a specialized technique used to spin samples at exceptionally high speeds. Current ultracentrifuges can spin to as much as 150 000 rotations per minute (rpm) (equivalent to 1 000 000 g) (Biocompare, 2019b). However, extreme centrifugal forces may cause overheating, so to avoid sample damage, ultracentrifuges are equipped with vacuum systems that keep a constant temperature in the

Lab Basics

Made for Spinning: The Centrifuge

As an Amazon Associate, ConductScience Inc. earns revenue from qualifying purchases Centrifuges – What Are They? Technically, any device that applies centrifugal force to objects by rotating them around a central axis might be called a centrifuge. Centrifuges are devices that apply high-speed spinning to objects, liquid or gas samples, to separate their individual components. Centrifuges contain a rotor where

Lab Basics

Stereo Microscopes: A Comprehensive Guide

Microscopes are sophisticated instruments used to see and analyze small specimens. With impressive optical and mechanical features, microscopes provide three-dimensional enlarged images of small objects and structures. They are used across a variety of settings, such as medicine, forensics, education, and geology. Depending on the research goals, microscopists can choose between different types of microscopes – with stereo microscopes being

Lab Basics

Refracting Telescopes: A Complete Guide

Given the mysterious beauty of the endless cosmos, there’s no doubt that telescopes are among the most fascinating instruments in the field of science. Telescopes are essential devices that have enabled the study of the universe by providing magnified images of distant objects and structures. Interestingly, telescopes have undergone significant transformations throughout the centuries. The first type of telescope –

Lab Basics

Reflecting Telescopes: All You Need to Know

The history of telescopy is fascinating. The first telescope was invented in the 17th century. Note that it was spectacle-maker Hans Lippershey, who was credited as the inventor of the first refractor telescope and Galileo Galilei, who pointed the telescope towards the skies. Early refractor telescopes, however, suffered from chromatic aberration, so in 1668 Sir Isaac Newton replaced the primary

Lab Basics

Portable and Handheld Telescopes: All You Need to Know

Telescopes have undergone significant transformations since the 17th century – or when the first refractor telescope was invented. Note that spectacle-maker Hans Lippershey was credited as the inventor of the telescope and Galileo Galilei as the scientist who pointed the telescope towards the skies. In 1668 Sir Isaac Newton created the so-called Newtonian reflecting telescope that consisted of mirrors instead