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Molecular GeneticsScience

Cloning into Bacteriophage M13 Vectors

Insertion of foreign DNA into M13 cloning vectors is a bit tricky and includes the following steps: Ligating double-stranded DNA segments with cohesive termini into compatible sites in M13 double-stranded RF DNA. Transforming ligation products into competent male E. coli cells (plated in top agar supplemented with X-gal and IPTG. …
June 14, 2021

Amino Acids: Building Blocks of Proteins

Introduction and History Amino acids are organic compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. They are monomers or building blocks of proteins. Proteins are one of the major biomolecules required for the proper functioning of living organisms. Moreover, they are the first biomolecules that were first recognized for their biological…
June 12, 2021

Polysaccharides: Properties, Functions, and Applications

Introduction Polysaccharides are long-chain polymers of monosaccharide units, joined together by glycosidic linkages. They are also known as glycans. They are the most abundant carbohydrates found in food. Carbohydrates are vital macromolecules required for the essential functions of organisms. They are classified into the following three classes depending on two…
June 1, 2021

Enzymes as Biocatalysts

Biocatalysts refer to proteins that drive all non-spontaneous chemical reactions in any biological system. Also known as enzymes, they are sensitive to temperature and pH, and act only on their specific reactants, unlike inorganic catalysts. However, their activities can be modulated and controlled. Since enzymes are also active in vitro…