Infusion pumps are utilized to study the physiological and pharmacological characteristics of biological or pharmacological substances in vivo. Two distinct types of infusion pumps are present: syringe pumps and implantable pumps. A syringe pump is a small infusion device that is used to gradually administer specific amounts of fluids for use in chemical and biomedical research. It includes an outer syringe that is attached to a catheter from the animal. Syringe pumps either withdraw or push out fluid via a syringe to obtain a predetermined volume depending on the size of the syringe. The pressure that a syringe pump can produce is a function of the pump’s force and also the physical attributes of the syringe and the setup utilized.
Over the years, a variety of vascular infusion and intravascular delivery methods have been utilized in rodents with varying amounts of success in biomedical research. Since rodents are the most extensively used animal species in biomedical research, it is reasonable to anticipate that the need for enhancing the techniques for vascular infusion systems in rodents will advance in the future. Fundamental research in fields like neuroscience, physiology, pharmacology, virology, immunology, and oncology utilize substantial quantities of rodents to evaluate the impact of biological and pharmacological active agents. A significant number of these studies depend on vascular infusion technology or to develop samples for the evaluation of movement, biodistribution, and plasma duration.
A syringe pump is the standard instrument for administering intravenous doses to rats and mice given its capacity to deliver small volumes accurately. In essence, the device guarantees precise administration of a drug. When the animal is set up for infusion or sample withdrawal, infusion and withdrawal techniques can be performed using manual or automated procedures. Manual infusion is performed with the syringe pump as syringes are connected to the catheters or pumps, which in turn can be attached to give unattended infusion.
The characteristics of a syringe pump vary extensively with regards to design type, flow rate, and precision. Types of designs include syringe, peristaltic, and piston pumps. Syringe pumps make use of a worm drive system, which drives the plunger of a standard syringe at a modifiable rate. Syringe pumps have a tendency to deliver low levels of flow with an accuracy of ±2%. The device can also be utilized for tethered infusion, where animals can be tethered for long duration infusions ranging from a span of several weeks to months. Syringe pumps can be set up for continuous pumping by using a reciprocating pumps program so that two pumps can be utilized together to make a constant infusion framework. This mode enables one pump to infuse while the other one withdraws.
There are two major types of syringe pumps: the medical infusion pump and the research syringe pump. The medical infusion pump is basically designed for the delivery of controlled amounts of fluids, for example, nutrients, drugs, and blood to patients. They are principally used for in vivo analysis, treatment, and research studies. On the other hand, research syringe pumps or the modern laboratory pumps are instruments utilized in research labs for applications that need very small amounts of fluid deliveries. Research pumps generally manage smaller volumes and provide additional characteristics that promote research yet are unfeasible for in vivo use. Moreover, the device offers better precision, a continuous flow and much better accuracy than their medical syringe counterparts.