Cart

Tom Jenks PostManager
Hello! I am a graduate marine biologist heading into a specialisation of marine mammals! Here at Conduct Science I am lead of Team Kilo, we produce articles and The Conduct Science Podcast hosted by myself and Mitch. Come listen to us talk about a whole variety of topics, new episodes every Thursday! I also host an interview series called Under the Microscope where I talk to scientists from around the world in many different fields about their experience, work and methodologies. And as if that wasn’t enough content every Friday I release a short form podcast called The Method Section, this is aimed at scientists old and new looking at the community, methodologies and many other topical and interesting science news!
follow me
×
Tom Jenks PostManager
Hello! I am a graduate marine biologist heading into a specialisation of marine mammals! Here at Conduct Science I am lead of Team Kilo, we produce articles and The Conduct Science Podcast hosted by myself and Mitch. Come listen to us talk about a whole variety of topics, new episodes every Thursday! I also host an interview series called Under the Microscope where I talk to scientists from around the world in many different fields about their experience, work and methodologies. And as if that wasn’t enough content every Friday I release a short form podcast called The Method Section, this is aimed at scientists old and new looking at the community, methodologies and many other topical and interesting science news!
follow me
Latest Posts

Timestamps

00:00 – Intro and welcome

00:59 – Factoids

12:19 – How the Moon formed

19:02 – Space exploration

24:43 – Why are Mars and Earth so different?

30:46 – Jupiter: The sculptor of our world

35:47 – Titan, moon of Saturn

38:06 – Black holes

1:01:28 – Enceladus, biggest space exploration finding of 21st century

1:05:57 – Would you go on a one way trip to Mars?

1:11:00 – Ending and outro

 

You can listen to The Conduct Science Podcast by using the player above, searching for “The Conduct Science Podcast” on any place you listen to your podcasts, using any of the links below or you can download it HERE!

Episode Description

Join Mitch and Tom this week as they get down with gravity in the first of a two-part topic: the Solar System. The conversation ranges from the newest theories to how the moon formed and how Jupiter sculpted the formation of Earth to the major scientific breakthroughs in recent years concerning black holes and the search for life! Music by: Joakim Karud – https://soundcloud.com/joakimkarud.

Website          Twitter          Facebook

RSS

Podbean

Spotify

Stitcher

Google Play

iTunes

Thanks for Listening!

Feel free to share your thoughts on our Twitter here:  @ConductScience

  • Ask a question with #AskConductScience
  • Suggest a guest
  • Suggest a topic

Learn about our products:

Transcript

Tom:                      Hello ladies and gentleman and welcome to the conduct science podcast where today we are getting down with gravity. If you want to check out all the latest goings on, you can go to conductscience.com. You can check out Facebook and Twitter by searching @conductscience. And if you have any questions, please use the #AskConductScience. We’d love to help answer your questions on this show. I’m your host Tom Jenks and I tried to get Brian Cox on the show this week, but he never replied to my email. So again, we are stuck with Mitchell Gatting

Mitch:                   Uh, formerly known as the $#&% Brian Cox [Laughter].

Tom:                      [Laughter]. Formerly knows as the $#&% Brian Cox. Yeah, great, great start 20 seconds in and we swore, we swore already. But today’s topic is the solar system and as usual I prepared some factoids. Uh, so I didn’t know actually how many like kind of NASA missions happened. Uh, in total. What would be your guess as to how many NASA missions have been conducted over the last 50 years?

Mitch:                   I’m going to say ballpark figure. Since like 1960 was it? 1950s?

Tom:                      ’69 was when we landed on the moon, right?

Mitch:                   Yeah. But in 1965 I landed a Mars. Not to throw down with your knowledge. Uh, I’m going to go with like 79

Tom:                      No, so 314 NASA missions.

Mitch:                   Oh, I low-balled that. Yep.

Tom:                      But 135 of those were just the space shuttle you know the one that went up and came back down and went up like the plane shuttle.

Mitch:                   Oh yeah, yeah. Building the International Space Station.

Tom:                      Yeah. That thing. [Laughter]. Yeah. That’s the little shuttle building the space station. I did wonder how they got that up there actually. So that, that makes sense.

Mitch:                   They did it in parts, I think it was like seven different sections that went up.

Tom:                      Yeah. I’d imagine it’s modular. That’d be the way to get it done, right?

Mitch:                   Yeah. So they had like the middle part and then they put up the, the solar panels or the array and then more of the array and then they like fold down and stuff.

Tom:                      Oh, okay. Cool. I’d love to go up there for like a an afternoon. That’d be great.

Mitch:                   Yeah. This is a quick pop up.

Tom:                      Quick pop up. The thing is you’d get there and you’re like, oh, this is, see, I wonder how long actually you get into the space station for and you’re really excited. And then how many days does it take for you to go, okay, this is kind of restrictive and boring now. do you understand what I mean?

Mitch:                   Yeah. Maybe like two months, I would say probably.

Tom:                      Yeah. And they’re normally what, three or six month periods? I think.

Mitch:                   Yeah, I think certain things get tiring fast. Like peeing into a cone.

Tom:                      Yeah. Well I guess you could just kind of pee into the open air and then scoop it up with a bag.

Mitch:                   Nah, that’s not, they’ve got a cone that’s got a vacuum on it, and they have to like [Mitch imitating the sound of genitals being sucked into a vacuum cleaner in space] that kind of action.

Tom:                      Oh, I was really, really worried about the, uh, the sound effect you were gonna make and you didn’t disappoint.

Mitch:                   Uh, yeah, I think that would probably get tiring. Also, I’ve seen a video, uh, washing your face becomes a near death experience because the water just can stick to your, your face. There’s no gravity for it to drip off. So it becomes like an orb of water around your head and very much like phobia of drowning, I think you would get pretty quickly.

Tom:                      Yeah. But it’s what, you can just scoop it out the way. Maybe

Mitch:                   Then it gets stuck to your hands and where’s it, where’s it? You can’t like move it, can you?

Tom:                      It’s like when you’ve got a really sticky bit of plastic and you can’t get rid of it, but instead it’s water.

Mitch:                   Yeah. But there’s nothing to no friction to push it out of the way with, so when you drag your hands through it. Your hands just drag through it and obviously a bit comes off in your hands, but there’ll still be a lot on your face.

Tom:                      You would have to drink it very quickly. Or like get a straw and poke the straw through. That’s my only solution. My next factoid then is, this is something I didn’t really, I’d been watching planets in preparation for this episode. Good old Brian Cox. I’m so sad he didn’t actually reply to my email, but you know, he’s a busy man. He’s currently on a world tour, so it kind of makes sense. So everyone knows Saturn has a, the rings, they’re very obvious. Everyone Kinda knows about them. They’re amazing to look at and, but did you know you Uranus has a ring as well.

Mitch:                   Yes, definitely.

Tom:                      I’m going to take that Gusto answer as a no. Um, so yeah, Uranus, has a ring, which I had no clue about until I watched the planets, the last episode. And it wasn’t, it was discovered in 1977 so it’s not like a recent thing, but that’s so hard to see because it’s not made of ice or since Saturn’s rings made of ice, they’re so reflective. We can only assume that Uranus ring is not. And it’s so thin and delicate that you would expect all the particles to, you know, leave the gravitational pull of Uranus. But there’s the two moons called Delia and Ophelia, which kind of like keep the particles in place. They just looped around in the exact perfect orbit of the planet to keep this very thin layer of whatever particles it is to keep that ring. And that I thought was very cool to know about and just think that, you know, we’ve seen we’ve taking pictures of it with probes that have gone out there and that’s pretty amazing.

Mitch:                   I just, I dunno what to think Tom.

Tom:                      You don’t know what to think?

Mitch:                   You’re taking photo’s… with probes… of the rings of Uranus. [Laughter].

Tom:                      [Laughter]. Now you’re decending the level!

Mitch:                   Just thought I’d bring it down a notch or two.

Tom:                      Well that’s, that’s why people come to this show. Very high brow material.

Mitch:                   But you’re going to finish the show in have like 10 minutes, having to cut loads of things out [Laughter].

Tom:                      I’ll ask you this question, if you could guess correctly, where the largest waterfall in the solar system history is? If that makes sense.

Mitch:                   So where are we moving on from facts already? Cause I’ve, I’ve got some facts.

Tom:                      No, this is last fact. This is my question for you fact. Um, the largest waltz fall in the solar system, it’s not active anymore, let’s say. Where do you think that was?

Mitch:                   Um, are we saying, is it a water full of water specifically or is it like,

Tom:                      Yeah, it was.

Mitch:                   I’m going to say Mars then.

Tom:                      Correct. And how high do you think it was?

Mitch:                   I dunno brah, 420 blaze it brah?

Tom:                      You’re not too far, it was 4 kilometers. You got the four, you got the four it was four kilometers tall, uh, it was called Ecas Kasma. And over the course of a couple of weeks, 350 cubic kilometers fell over there in just a few weeks. Uh, that happened kind when Mars’ atmosphere start to abandon it. But I’m sure we’ll come onto that in a bit anyway, but I was just imagining a four kilometer tall waterfall on another planet is, I went through, I was researching this week just having my mind blown consistently and repeatedly, like every half an hour about these new discoveries. And just being like, Oh my God, this is like kind of within reach of our lifetime, especially Mars. Anyway. But yeah, go onto your, your facts. Blow my mind again. Uh,

Mitch:                   on Satin and Jupiter, if you don’t know it, rains diamonds.

Tom:                      Ah, see this was something I was going to come on to layer that blew my mind so hard. I was like, Oh, why did you, you know, the process through which that happens?

Mitch:                   I, I do. Uh, would you like me to explain?

Tom:                      Yeah, go for it.

Mitch:                   So what happens in, well, don’t say, I’m not sure if Jupiter’s quite the same, but I know for Saturn that uh, the methane in the clouds in the air gets turned into soot via lightning storms, which, uh, is quite a common occurrence in Saturn as it’s quite got quite a, uh, volatile atmosphere. So it turns into turns the methane into soot, which is carbon. As it falls, it hardens. So it then becomes graphite and then becomes diamonds.

Tom:                      Yeah. And then as it falls further, the diamonds liquefy.

Mitch:                   Yes. Uh, well, not when they’re fallin. They, uh, land and then they eventually melt into the planet’s hot Core. Yeah.

Tom:                      Yeah. Which I thought was that I had this kind of question into my head when I was researching Jupiter and Saturn. I was like, okay, that gas giants, does that mean they don’t have a solid surface at all, but they don’t actually have a core,

Mitch:                   they’ve got a core but it’s not, yeah.

Tom:                      Saturn’s core is helium. Right. And a kind of, it’s under so much pressure acts as a liquid metal.

Mitch:                   Yes.

Tom:                      And one of the things that they were so confused about is as you very correctly said, satin is very volatile. The atmosphere is very volatile and they were like, it’s too far away from the sun because heat drives weather systems just as it does here. But they were too is too far away from the sun. It’s like how is this happening? And they realized there must be this liquid metal helium and revolving around in the core creating the heat for these incredible storms to occur. And as you say, Jupiter’s not too dissimilar in that kind of way of looking at things and hit me with your rhythm stick.

Mitch:                   Uh, why, why, what who????

Tom:                      With your rhythm factoid stick.

Mitch:                   Okay. Uh, sure [Laughter]. Uh, my second fact is that when stars are, or instead interstellar objects, uh, when they are pulled apart by a black hole, it’s called spaghettification

Tom:                      Did an Italian name that?

Mitch:                   Oh, I don’t know. I don’t think so. But yeah, it’s, it’s the, the process of being drawn out into a long strand.

Tom:                      Oh, is that like the pictures you like the classic star being absorbed into a black hole where it’s like curls over through massive space time and like there’s like this sars soul is being absorbed.

Mitch:                   Yeah. I’m not sure if space time is the right usage there, but we’ll continue anyway. Uh, but yeah, yeah, that’s exactly it. When it gets, well, you see it like spiral and then the spiral arcs out and then a strand comes off and it just goes to nom nom, nom, nom, and then dissapears into the black hole.

Tom:                      I hope black holes actually make that noise.

Mitch:                   I’m sure they would if, I’m sure if you listened to the radiation they gave off, it’d be like a norm. Norm norm

Tom:                      I guess. Yeah. In the vacuum of space we’ll never be able to confirm nor deny the theory. So technically it could be true. Cool. Cool. Have you anymore?

Mitch:                   No, no. That was it. That was my, my two was I went for,

Tom:                      I like it. I like it.

Mitch:                   Also, I’m just going to say that it devalues the whole, you know, time is being precious darling I would propose to you with this diamond ring. But you know, it hails diamonds on Saturn so, you know, I thought I’d just cheap out.

Tom:                      I mean that’s a solid argument to see. I’d like to see that a video recording of that conversation and how it unfolds. One thing I kind of wanted to talk about was something a bit closer to home is the moon because I watched a ted talk on the new theory of how the moon came to be.

Mitch:                   Okay. I know, I know the old one

Tom:                      Yeah is the giant impact theory.

Mitch:                   Yeah. Often called the big splash. [Laughter].

Tom:                      Big Slash? The big splash 2, coming to cinemas on Friday. did you make that up?

Mitch:                   No, no, that does. That is legit, you know when I’m like, I always search for like the great dying and things like that. Yeah. Sometimes it’s called the the big splash. Not the great big splahs Just the, just the big splash. Yeah.

Tom:                      I think we should change it to the great splash. So it ties in with our theme of the great dying. Um, so that theory, the, the giant impact theory or the great splash as, we’re now calling it a, it’s way like a Mars size planet hit Earth and the moon formed from the debris leftover.

Mitch:                   It’s got a name, use this name.

Tom:                      What?

Mitch:                   The body that collided with it. Theia

Tom:                      Theia?

Mitch:                   Yeah.

Tom:                      Okay. I didn’t look into it that much to be fair. Um, because this is the old theory. [Laughter]. Um, but that if that was to be true, if Theia earth and the moon formed from the debris, that would mean that the moon and the earth would be isotopically different. Right. The isotopes in the rocks would be different as they are with every single so you know what an isotope is?

Mitch:                   Yes, yes I do. If they hit and they were probably the same when it wouldn’t they be the same then?

Tom:                      No, because you’ve then got the isotopes from Theia. Right. And Theia would be the one that would be, you would put on the side of the planet where it got hit. Right. So if Thea smashes into earth and it’s smaller, you’d imagine that Theia would be the one like vaporized with a bit of earth coming out of it as well. But the main like core of an isotope resonance with Earth would be the same and then you’d imagine the moon would have more Theia. I think that’s what the model is kind of suggests.

Mitch:                   The way that I looked into it and thought they came about was that they crashed into other and then Theia was obliterated became a belt over time. Like due to gravity and enough circling. It formed the moon.

Tom:                      Yeah, exactly. That is the, that is exactly the theory. But if that were the case, the moon would be more Theia than earth. And you’d be able to tell that by looking at the isotopes in the rocks because every single planetary body has its own isotopic signature, like DNA. Essentially. Earth has one, Mars has one Saturn has one would do if we could go there, you know, everything has its own isotopic identity apart from the moon on earth, which are identical. We’re literally twins. So that was the one flaw in the giant impact theory that all the specialists seem to kind of agree with. So they realize that the moon had to be from earth and the model that they’ve come up with and the theory that they’ve come up with is, have you heard of a Synestia before?

Mitch:                   I have not.

Tom:                      Okay. So what they thought happened was maybe the earth was hit by a passing comment, meteorite, whatever. And it sped up the spinning process. So Earth was spinning faster, that caused the core to heat up a bit. And because it heated up, it’s instead of it being spherical, it kind of became like disc shaped a bit more, not like overly but elongated along the equator. And then it got hit by this giant asteroid Theia let’s say, and it vaporized both earth and Theia, right this leftover kind of imagine like a donut shaped cloud of debris. And in the middle is like the burning core of the planet. Imagine like a primordial solar system on a much smaller, smaller scale if have this cloud of dust around it within that, that’s called a Synestia. Within that Synestia they think the earth formed and the moon formed within like the cloud orbiting it. So originally earth was meant to be or would have been, you know, a bit bigger had it not been completely obliterated and then had to reform. But they think that Synestia stages are kind of quite common actually in some planets go through one or more during their formation. But without that coincidence, earth may have been completely different to what it is today. So that’s what I found quite interesting. I hadn’t heard of that theory before. I was like, you know, cause it’s been there so long, we’ve been studying it for so long. You kind of just presume we know. But at the same time you realize planetary science is kind of the forefront, the forefront of frontier, the final frontier of physics at the minute.

Mitch:                   Well, name that reference that you’ve just used. Where does that come from, Tom?

Tom:                      Star Trek.

Mitch:                   Which one?

Tom:                      The first movie. [Laughter].

Mitch:                   [Laughter]. I do believe it was star Trek The phantom menace.

Tom:                      Oh yeah, that was the one where Harry Potter is.

Mitch:                   Uh, yeah. Harry Potter is a jedi and he fights the borg. See that’s a star trek reference you probably wouldn’t even get

Tom:                      What the borg?

Mitch:                   Yeah the borg!

Tom:                      No. See I thought that I was imagining that ugly… ah that’s Bolg. I was managing the ugly orc from the Hobbit. That’s Bolg. My bad. Um, yeah, no, you’re right. I don’t get that reference. But I knew at the Star Trek, so I’m gonna, you know, take half a point there before you destroy my pop culture credibility. Okay. So that I found very interesting because yeah, this is the moon w we don’t know anything about well we do, but that’s something I Kinda then annoyed me was the fact that, you know, men not sending people out to the moon anymore or because the most recent NASA project for that got canceled and then they restarted it again with project Artemis. I think it is.

Mitch:                   Yeah wasn’t that a wholefunding fiasco though. Not like they didn’t want to NASA got its budget cut by a ridiculous amount.

Tom:                      Yeah. And okay, I get the argument that we should be focusing on the planet and making things better and all of that. But at the same time you’ve got to think that all of the greatest technology innovations have kind of come through humans exploring and expanding firstly over the world and now I guess past the world,

Mitch:                   You telling me that a selfie stick was produced for explore exploring? [Laughter].

Tom:                      I’m telling you exactly that. Yeah. The greatest innovation in the 20th century. The selfie stick.

Mitch:                   20th?

Tom:                      21st. Sorry. I was trying to not do last century and I ended up doing it in my head. I was saying, don’t say 20th, don’t say 20th. And I said 20th. um, the, yeah, the greatest innovation to come through this century is the selfie stick and future generations will ask in its glory,

Mitch:                   uh, civilizations million years in the future will dig up. The trash heap that will be at the time and be like, Oh, must’ve been a, I don’t like a divine rod. Used to worship and look at t

Tom:                      T worship their own faces. So I did a kind of like a bit of a look into kind of the NASA projects that are going on at the minute. And obviously you’ve got the ISS, which is not just NASA, you got the European Space Agency, which I didn’t know was a thing. I’m going to lie. You’ve got Rosetta, do you know the Rosetta probe which landed on comment? P67.

Mitch:                   Yeah. That was impressive. That was.

Tom:                      That was really impressive. That’s the one that you got the pictures of. Right? And you can see it’s like snowing on this comment.

Mitch:                   Yeah, I think it was like throwing a dart at a ping pong ball. That is something like an olympic swimming pool away and managing it to hit. It was like them landing this, on this comet

Tom:                      Oh wow.

Mitch:                   Like yeah, that’s really cool. Like the amount of Maths that went into calculating trajectory and stuff was incredible.

Tom:                      Yeah, that’s insane. I mean it was the first thing to land on a comment ever. I do believe in it, especially with like cameras and to take the enough necessary recordings that we wanted. I was watching a video of like Cassini spacecraft from like must be the seventies late seventies early eighties and it was like the Cassini space craft has just arrived early 2.79 seconds early. And I was like, it’s such a big deal that they screwed up by 2.7 seconds that they had to mention it on the broadcast.

Mitch:                   Well yeah. You think of like how much could change in those seconds.

Tom:                      That’s true. That calculations are off to, yeah.

Mitch:                   Yeah like if it goes to the land and it’s two seconds too late, it’s just going to miss the asteroid isn’t it?

Tom:                      [Laughter]. Just absolutely plow into Jupiter. Okay. Yeah, that’s fair. But I just want you to kind of just being a bit of like a bummer about it. It’s why are you being such a downer man?

Mitch:                   Sorry.

Tom:                      No, not you! The, the, the, the broadcaster. Um, you’ve got the new horizons project probe that’s going on at the moment and just even on the first day of this year actually it, uh, encountered the most distant object we’ve ever visited, which is, uh, uh, an asteroid in the Kuiper field. Did I say that right?

Mitch:                   I Dunno, it’s on you.

Tom:                      Um, so yeah. The, the Kuiper belt or Kuiper field, I think you can refer to either or, I’m just naive. Ignorant. Yeah. That’s the most distant object we’ve ever encountered and you know, is way past Pluto. The new horizon took the picture of Pluto’s heart. If you haven’t seen that picture that astonishing. Um, and you got the high Huygens probe the lines on Titan and of course at the minute you’ve got curiosity paving the way around Mas. And that I find absolutely incredible. Obviously it was designed to be there for 668 Sols Martian days, but it’s currently on Sol 2,460 odd. So it’s 1,800 days over. It’s expected mission date.

Mitch:                   They made it, they made it to Spec and then some, so fair pay to those scientists and engineers

Tom:                      and every day they upload about four or 500 pictures that you can just go check out. I was looking at them earlier and some of them are just okay, some of them is just dirt and it’s a bit boring, but some of it is like okay to be, to think that it’s a pebble that you can see as being smoothed by water rushing over it and it’s on a different planet. Now that is cool. That is really cool. I thought. Anyway, and then so that kind of made me think why is earth and Mars so different? Or I’ll correct myself. Brian Cox had this thought and I agreed with him, like, yes, that would be interesting to know. And do you know anything about Mars’ history? Have you dived into Mars at all?

Mitch:                   Not during my research, but I know from what I can remember, I know a little bit. Didn’t it used to have an atmosphere a long time ago and have running water and then it lost its atmosphere.

Tom:                      Still got an atmosphere, it’s just very very thin.

Mitch:                   What we, well, I would define as not a habitable, but uh, so that can sustain processes until it doesn’t become a rock.

Tom:                      Yeah. No, you’re bang on the money and the thought is kind of due to the, before the earth was really uninhabitable and Mars was the one with all lots of water on it and you know, very oasis-y, it was the blue planet. I’m now because of like the, I think it started with the late heavy bombardment. Do you know that phrase?

Mitch:                   Uh, I think I know what it is, but not, I haven’t heard it as called that.

Tom:                      Is just like a massive, meteor shower ripped through the inner solar system, smacking into Mars and earth and all the others. It was like something like 4 billion years ago or something, maybe even 5 billion years ago.

Mitch:                   Didn’t the Moon and that act as like a shield for us? Helped us a lot.

Tom:                      Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. I like, if you look at the dark side of the moon, it’s got thousands more creators than uh, cause it’s locked facing us, isn’t it? The dark side never turns around to face us.

Mitch:                   Yeah. Which is why the Japanese did, that mission was it last year? So they, they sent to get for film and pictures of the dark side of the moon. they sent up. Um, maybe it was like a sattelite and then another shuttle. So what happened is it landed on the darkside of the moon because there was a satellite around the moon in, orbit it could ping up then ping around. So they could actually get like proper pictures of the darkside of the moon. Y

Tom:                      eah. Oh, that’s cool. I haven’t seen that.

Mitch:                   Oh, that’s my, my bad is not, um, wasn’t Japanese or Chinese, uh, Japan that’s got a like normally sends,

Tom:                      Yeah. Japan, China actually are catching up but India really surprises me actually with being, you know, in my head maybe wrongly is still a developing country but they have a massive space program. That was pretty cool. Um, yeah, so Mars got smashed during the late heavy bombardment and it kind of messed it up pretty badly. So much so that basically what they think happened is, so, you know, our molten core gives us this kind of magnetic force field around earth. Mars also had one.

Mitch:                   I’m aware of this, uh, electric magnetic force fields that we have.

Tom:                      Yeah. Very Scifi-esk. Um, and the, obviously that’s what causes the Aurora borealis in the north and south polls

Mitch:                   Do you know, actually causes that to go deep into it?

Tom:                      I do

Mitch:                   Isn’t it? Uh, the solar wins. It puls the atmosphere I say pulls, but like it stretches atmosphere and then like brings it back slightly and then it brings it back. It like directs it to the poles. That’s a really bad explanation [Laughter].

Tom:                      [Laughter]. Okay. Well I found was you correct, you say the solar flares, solar winds get ejected from the sun and that happens when particles become electromagnetically charged through the nuclear reaction in the center of the star. Or the sun in this case, uh, they get flung out towards planets naturally or in all directions. And then when these particles get here, what they do is they react with they cause they’re electromagnetically charged. They line up with the electromagnetic force field we have around our planet. And when they’re in the atmosphere, they react with the molecules that are there and excite them. So you can see it reacting with the nitrogen out with the oxygen, but also lining up with the magnetic force field. And that’s why it appears in these weird straight lines because it’s lining up with the magnetic poles as well as exciting particles along that line to the distinct colors. So that’s why it’s always green and maybe about purple because of the elements. It’s exciting, I think. Is that what you had in mind?

Mitch:                   Uh, yes. Um, what I’m thinking of is something similar but different.

Tom:                      Okay. That’s how I kind of had it explained.

Mitch:                   Yeah. So I was thinking of is the the Earth’s atmosphere does a, it stretches out over time. Then when you get so far then snaps back in. Um, and I think they think that this happened a long time ago and it would happen and the reverse the poles if you had compass.

Tom:                      Oh yeah. They do say the poles reverse every so often don’t they? But I’m not actually sure whether it would be the day after tomorrow. Scenario Uh, if you haven’t seen that film, go to school and they’ll make you watch it everyday for a year. [Laughter].

Mitch:                   This is what happens when you burn too much fossil fuels and the poles change.

Tom:                      One thing I did want to talk about was Jupiter actually I became absolutely fascinated by this planet, um, when researching this. So it was the first planet, which is probably why it’s the biggest cause it sucked up a lot of the material that was there. And without it, we probably wouldn’t be here because during the early formation of the solar system, Jupiter kind of got pulled in towards the sun and it ended up about where Mars is where Mars orbitz now the distance away and it moved through the asteroid belt, flew all this debris away, sucked up extra hydrogen and helium that was there and extra rocks basically, whatever it could grab. Not that it was conscious of course. Um, it explains kind of why maybe Mars is so small and because Mars is only a 10th of the mass of earth and Venus. And so it kind of explains one, our solar system is very, very strange compared to lots of other systems because we don’t have any super earths. We don’t, which are, you know, planets twice the size of earth. We don’t have other planetary bodies that have the similar size that you might expect to see generally and an average in quote marks system. We’d have this asteroid belt, we have two gas giants really far out. It’s very odd composition for a system and it’s probably because Jupiter came in so early on during the formation. And then when Saturn formed, it kind of dragged it back out again. And in the asteroid belt we’ve got two protoplanets, which is like something that’s not big enough to be a planet, uh, but it’s kind of really big. And maybe we could have had two extra planets or at least one extra planet in our system,

Mitch:                   But no, Jupiter, was just too greedy.

Tom:                      Too greedy. But it’s not all bad because Jupiter can, you know, flings asteroids towards the Sonnen towards us. I’m thinking that he’s kind of bad, but that’s what they think a lot of our water came from. Okay. Uh, so earth obviously being very water based, as everyone knows that they think a lot of that water arrived from ice comments, ice asteroids being flung towards by Jupiter. And of course 100,000 years ago [I meant 75 million years ago, I dunno how I got so confused], Jupiter caused the great dying. Uh, I don’t think it was, that was the meteor one. However, the great dying 2, uh, where 75% of all life was wiped out and allowed for mammals to kind of take the precipice of evolution. So without Jupiter, we wouldn’t be here. Is the sculptor of our world an unknown figure in the sky.

Mitch:                   Do you know Paul was in so many of these, uh, these asteroids? Do you know how many, uh, moons Jupiter has?

Tom:                      Isn’t it something ridiculous? Like 59,

Mitch:                   Uh, you are so far as it’s 79 natural satellites that moons. Uh, 63 of these are less than 10 kilometers in diameter.

Tom:                      What’s like the requirements? Sorry, you carry on for a moon?

Mitch:                   For a moon. It just has to be a naturally orbiting uh, a natural satellite. Yeah. So something that’s natural that is like being that has an orbit round, a larger planet.

Tom:                      Oh, okay. So it doesn’t, it doesn’t have like any size requirement like planets do?

Mitch:                   Um, any astronomical body that orbits planets. Pretty much.

Tom:                      No requirements. Sorry, carry on with what you were saying… I was going to go into Pluto.

Mitch:                   Well that’s not planit get out here.

Tom:                      Yeah, exactly. Cause I was like, why isn’t that a planet anymore? And it kind of is but isn’t for very understandable reasons.

Mitch:                   It’s just an icy rock… [Laughter].

Tom:                      Well unexciting icy rock on the edge of our Solar System really far away and it does show signs of something really cool, which is geothermal activity, which we have no clue how that’s happening. But if you seen the picture of Pluto’s heart, they zoomed in on that because it’s such a high resolution picture and it’s, there’s no, there’s no craters in that part of the planet, which means it must be new and they think it’s frozen nitrogen, glaciers moving around. So it is pretty, pretty cool. Trying to imagine being there.

Mitch:                   Would be a bit cold

Tom:                      It would be a bit freezing to be honest. So one of my favorite things in the Solar System, I don’t know if you kind of decided you have a favorite thing.

Mitch:                   I do have a favorite thing?

Tom:                      Go on. Go. Go for your favorite thing.

Mitch:                   No, I don’t want to. Mine’s confusing and hard to talk about. So you do yours first.

Tom:                      All right. So my favorite thing for a long time about the Solar System has always been Titan. The moon of Saturn and I know I just got it actually kind of fell in love with the idea of that there is a primordial Earth. Something that they think earth looked like millions of years ago before life kind of transformed it in teraformed i.t, I mean there’s lakes of me thing, oceans of methane mud flats that you very much expect to see here in Dunes that are, you know, 1000 miles long and two kilometers high. And something I had not thought before is obviously when this, uh, when the sun starts to die and you know, it expands up to about where just about where ourorbit is, it might then be warm enough on Titan for life to arise or for life to arrive there if we’re still getting

Mitch:                   If it expands though it doesn’t mean that it’s, uh, that the beginning of collapsing. The sun.

Tom:                      Yeah, it does happen over a very long period. So it means it will warm up the planets in the outer or the outer planets. So the, I think the Venus and Mercury will obviously get consumed. We just about won’t, but it will be so hot that it doesn’t really matter. You know, they’re like a thousand degrees on the surface. There is no staying on earth at that point. Um, but yeah, but it does mean like the outer planets like Saturn and I guess by effect Titan will warm up and the ice might start to melt and they’ll have very different compositions all of a sudden because it’s not so cold. So I’ll be very interested. Something that I kind of, I obviously never, will see, but to a theorize kind of what might that look like? Hit me with this confusing thing. Exciting stuff.

Mitch:                   Well, we’ve actually talked about them before, um, in our what episode was it?

Tom:                      Three space and time?

Mitch:                   Yes. Space. Ah, yes. Time. Uh, black holes. And that’s my, that’s my jam.

Tom:                      Okay. See many of them in the Solar System? [Laughter].

Mitch:                   [Laughter]. See this is when I got my wires crossed when I realizes that you were like “Solar System”, and I was like black holes though. So yeah, black holes of my, my favorite thing that I is, uh, In space. Just because they’re just ridiculous ready that there’s such a anomaly when it comes to physics and what we know and weliterally know nothing about them and we probably will never know enough about them or what goes on beyond event horizon, which is the circle of no return. The gravity is too strong, so you can’t get away because once you get past it, you can’t get out. So any probe we send in there, we won’t have to send anything out because if it’s done by radio, waves won’t be able to travel fast enough to get out of it because the gravity’s too strong.

Tom:                      What if you had like a like camera on the end of a pole, right? And the pole was outside of this field. The end of the pole is on the outside of the field and the inside of the pole in it. Would it stop the electricity going up that pole?

Mitch:                   uh, yes, it would because electricity is just the, the movement of electrons. So it would, well first of all, it would rip the pole out of your hand probably. Because it would pull it in and then spaghettifi it.

Tom:                      Okay. You’ve got this really strange camera footage of your pole spaghettifying

Mitch:                   Yeah, cause it just all like rip it down, pull it apart, atom by atom until it’s one atom tall and then all the atoms long. +

Tom:                      Does that ever happen because if it takes an infinite amount of time for you to fall in, would you kind of indefinitely see someone falling in?

Mitch:                   This is what I thought was very interesting because as we talked about, um, interstellar in that episode before, and when you go to, uh, well theory relativity, when you move closer towards a body of, uh, a mass that has a greater gravity, when a black hole could, you could argue that it goes to infinite because it just gets, just keeps going. Um, yeah. There’s this, uh, train of thought, which I thought was very interesting is that as if you were the person watching, uh, uh, saw him fall into a black hole. You would see them go quickly at first and then slowed down. Right. So it looks like they’re not moving at all and then just fade away. Okay. Because it would look like they would stop moving because relatively you they do. And then they would jet just so far away that they would just disintegrate and just disappear. But the flip side of that, which I think is even more awesome if you were that person going into the black hole and you didn’t instantly die, you would see the universe going in fast forward. Because it works both ways. works both ways. If the person sees you going in slow motion, you are actually seeing everything go quicker and quicker and quicker and quicker. The closer you get to the point where it could just be a like a massive blur and then like

Tom:                      So for the first, you know, say five minutes it’d be really sick because you’d be seeing all these constellations form and galaxies spiral around each other and come at you since you’re in the black hole. And then after that it’ll just be so blurry. You want me to make anything out?

Mitch:                   It would just be so bright. But that that’s, that’s what like if you taking a bit of a step into Sci-fi and that you could survive that. You definitely, definitely wouldn’t

Tom:                      See I’m wondering if…sorry. Carry on.

Mitch:                   No, I was just like, eh. So the reason why you wouldn’t, and I’ll loop back round is because a black holes technically are invisible aren’t they? That’s why they call black holes. You can’t, you can’t see them. Um, so that they’re technically invisible, which I think is great. But what you can see is like the disc around the outside.

Tom:                      That’s the event horizon, right?

Mitch:                   So, uh, mm. Technically, no. Um, so the event horizon is the point ofno return and then things can be spiraling in that. Okay. Um, this is cooled. Ah, the black hole shadow, which is what gives away where one of the ways it gives away where black hole is and that gets bright because the amount of friction and mass that swirling around the and the gravity bring everything together. It becomes super hot and just gives offices this, well it doesn’t give off heat but gives off this like the lights around the outside. Because that has to be, yeah. Outside of the event horizon for that to happen because no light escapes the event horizon.

Tom:                      Did you see the home picture that they took of the black hole?

Mitch:                   Yes. I was going to talk about that. That is my favorite thing to have happened last year. I think it was last year that everyone moaned about how rubbish that picture was. I’m like, you don’t understand how incredible the science behind that photo is.

Tom:                      Yeah. It’s possibly the best thing to happen in the 21st century science wise.

Mitch:                   Yeah. And everyone was like, oh poo-poo’d it. And I’m like, okay. So I think it was like eight different, uh, stations across the globe, uh, were scanning this one section of space that is so ridiculous, really far away. That I don’t even know the number, but I’m pretty sure it’s like this, the center of our galaxy.

Tom:                      Well for those of us who want to check out, I written an article on it. Uh, shameless plug. (Check it out here 😉 conductscience.com/why-is-the-first-picture-of-a-black-hole-so-important/)

Mitch:                   Yeah. And then it all the information being collated by, I think it was like this plane. Yeah. Was it a plane that they collected all the data on?

Tom:                      Are you talking about an airplane or plane as in a plane of space, like a flat?

Mitch:                   Aeroplane, like a flying in the sky aeroplane.

Tom:                      Uh, I’m unsure on that one.

Mitch:                   There was something to do. Okay. I’m not sure if it was timing or syncing it or gathering the data, but there was so much data that it took like a ridiculous amounts of processing to, to get this and then yeah, to even get close to what they thought it was because it was like, it looked like the, eye didn’t, this isn’t it. It was like a black hole in the middle. And then what was the shadow around the outside? And what was great about that is they carried out simulations, ridiculous amount of simulations beforehand and they agreed on one. That was, I think what they deemed like close enough to what they thought the, the mass and the science behind it was. And then for that to be so similar, pretty much identical to the picture they took, they were like, okay well we got that right. That’s, that’s go home from this.

Tom:                      Yeah, that was a real big step forward wasn’t it? Because it’s the first picture of a black or I guess the shadow of the black hole as you said. And for them too. Cause I watched the live reveal.

Mitch:                   Yeah same.

Tom:                      Yeah. And as you say, they were like, oh here’s a model that we did and here’s how it actually looks. And it was like, wow, that’s for something that we didn’t even believe in wholly as a society, I guess even 50/100 years ago. To have that amount of understanding on something we haven’t seen before is impressive because if you’re doing experiments here and like biology or something, which is, you know, you go outside and you take a sample, right? Whereas can’t do that with distant objects that are far away. You’re relying on Einstein’s laws of general relativity and maybe quantum mechanics. They’re relying on these laws knowing that at some level they are wrong.

Mitch:                   That was one of the things that I thought was super important that it, uh, the evidence that got given sort of weighed in the favor of, cause there’s the theory of relativity, there’s Einstein that we’ve covered before. If you want to go back and check out that episode. (Episode 3: Time conductscience.com/conduct-science-podcast-what-is-time/Um, and then there’s something which I saw heard, which is quantum gravity with like another set that they think how gravity works at a quantum level. And those are the two like pillars that are currently vying out to see who wins what, what the what. Yeah. Yeah. So you never had no, I told today. Um, and apparently it then flipped in a theory of relativity favor and that it was like that abide by it. So yeah, that’s what I want. Do you know, the other two ways that scientists know that our black holes exist?

Tom:                      No, I don’t.

Mitch:                   So the first way is, um, the shadow black hole’s shadows. Uh, the second way is the effect of that black holes, uh, the gravity has on surrounding stars and gases. So if there isn’t a noticablestar, but the, a planet or star then moves in a weird manner, I think it is. So if it looks like it’s getting pulled into an area that they shouldn’t do, they can assume that, um, there’s a black hole there or something causing it to move. And the third one, which I really like is when there are two black holes orbiting each other. So when that happens, uh, the lights, it gives off a really high energy light because the refraction and the bending of light between these two orbiting black holes and in like bends the light in a really weird maner. And it gives off this, I read a high energy light. I thought it was really incredible.

Tom:                      That’s amazing. And you know, they’ve just started kind of measuring gravitational waves.

Mitch:                   Yes. That was, I was going to bring up that, yeah.

Tom:                      That the first ever one that they detected was from two black holes colliding and giving off that type of light.

Mitch:                   Yeah.

Tom:                      Which is just imagine that being, you turning on this equipment for the very first time and it was three days early to when they’re actually meant to turn it on. And the very first thing you detect as two black holes smashing into each other.

Mitch:                   Hmm. Yeah. Just, yeah, just the incredible, okay. Third set. Moving on. Do you know what the two different types of black holes are?

Tom:                      Um, black and blacker?

Mitch:                   Um, you have black holes that were formed when the universe began. Okay. So at the time there would have been smaller and they’ve grown over time or that the mass increased and then you have stellar black holes that are made from the center of a really big star that collapses in on himself. So not a lot of people think of those black holes when you,

Tom:                      I thought that’s how all black holes formed. And I presumed that even the earliest ones there was, I just presumed that wasn’t a black hole until a star collapsed. Uh, that was my, that’s the way I had thought of it. But I’d never asked. I never thought to question any different. That was pretty interesting.

Mitch:                   So there was one when the university began when, so for those that don’t know about stellar black holes, what happens is that a star will run out of its nuclear fuel and then the iorn, I think, am I going to get this right? So when a a star is in space, the pressures and the gravity on the, on the outside, uh, equal the amount of a force being pushed up from the inside. And then what happens is as nuclear reaction take place on the inside, uh, there’s a chain of, um, molecules that get built up over time. Uh, and the furthest one down the line is iron. Um, and that gets given off by these chain reactions. And when the star has too much iron in it, it then becomes unstable because the pressures from the outside is more than the inside. And that’s what causes it to exploe in.

Tom:                      Yeah. Iron. Iron is like the stellar poison.

Mitch:                   Pretty much, yeah. So then what happens is that goes in on itself. Um, I think it can either not go into a black hole then.

Tom:                      I think at that point it can either go into a supernova or if the mass is big enough. It has to be over a certain threshold for the collapsing to form a black hole rather than a supernova.

Mitch:                   Yeah. But then supernovas can then turn into black holes. Cause the same thing happened then happens.

Tom:                      Oh, I can imagine. Like the Supernova kind of goes through itself coming back out the other side and then comes back in on itself again. And that might do it.

Mitch:                   So now to the confusing stuff.

Tom:                      Oh, we hadn’t done the confusing stuff yet.? Yeah.

Mitch:                   No. So black holes will eventually evaporate

Tom:                      through hawking radiation right?

Mitch:                   Through Hawking radiation.

Tom:                      I just wanted to sound smart [Laughter].

Mitch:                   Yeah, you are correct. Uh, do you want to explain what the, the process of walking radiation is?

Tom:                      I watched the theory of everything a couple of months ago. All I seem to remember is if stuff’s going in heat must be produced.

Mitch:                   Yeah. Okay. So right. This is a bit wibbly -wobbly-timey-wimey stuff. So pretty much what happens is that is a, an area called empty space, which is literally just what it says. It’s empty space. That is like between things a and what happens in this empty space is two vertical particles pop into existence And then collide and then annhialiate each other and they stop being a thing. Okay. Sounds ridiculous but that this is what happens. But when this process happens too close to a black hole, if you imagine you have the event horizon on the left and on the right, these two pop into existence on the wrong sides, the different sides of this event horizon. And then they can’t collide and then they shoot off in different directions. And this one, half of the collision gets put into the black hole, which raises the mass I want to say and then it becomes hotter. And then when it keeps getting hotter, it then gets smaller I think because it’s then using the energy for heat instead and then over a very, very long period of time I’m talking a like Google of time, like I think it was like 10 Google years or something ridiculous. It’ll then pop out popup like explode with the force of a trillion nuclear bombs. I think it is something we date to this. But yeah that’s how it loses energy over time will eventually evaporate.

Tom:                      That is the big bang question mark?

Mitch:                   Well maybe. But then there’ll be many big bangs.

Tom:                      True. But the universe hasn’t been around for over a Google years. Has It?

Mitch:                   No that’s true. So it could be, yeah. So yeah there’s the, then

Tom:                      There it is, we solvedd the universe, ladies and gentlemen. Thank you for listening.

Mitch:                   You say that right? Okay. So the thing of black holes, and I will not go too deeply into it because they’re very, very complex things I don’t want to get wrong is all to do with information.

Tom:                      Yeah. Okay. Uh,

Mitch:                   and that’s the problem that, um, black holes cause is do they delete information from the universe? And the law of like science I think is that information cannot be destroyed. It’s an, it’s an converted or changed or everything has its structure. So what happens when that information gets thrown into a black hole because it rips everything down to its primal atoms.

Tom:                      How do you know, how do we know? Maybe this is a, I just thought of this maybe, but maybe a multiple first I doubt it. I highly doubt it. Well, if black holes aren’t holes and they are, for lack of a better term, planet type things that have a surface and the gravitational pull is just so strong that they consume all atoms. So the information technically isn’t lost from the universe. It is still there, but it is lost to those who are not in the same time dilation category to those who are not within the thing?

Mitch:                   Okay you’ve got close to another theory that is the hologram theory, which a lot of people may, may or may not have heard is I think Elon Musk absolutely loved it and was just like, oh well we’re all holograms on the rotating on the outside of the black hole, which is that, so that information they is like, so they’re saying that the information isn’t destroyed, it’s just being stored. A three dimensional information is being stored two d on the edge of a black hole.

Tom:                      Okay.

Mitch:                   So we potentially could be currently and we wouldn’t know it be just a hologram on the edge of a black hole because it’s sustaining us in three dimensions. Even though it’s only being held in two D.

Tom:                      I get the information being held there. I don’t get how it makes a Hologram.

Mitch:                   Uh, because uh, what Hologram is, is two dimensional information being projected into three D.

Tom:                      Oh, I see. Okay. Yeah. Now I understand.

Mitch:                   So by definition, that’s why it’s called a hologram theory. Um, and that’s one of the ways that they think that the information technically isn’t lost. Another one, which I really like, is that the black hole absorbs all this information and then a smaller black hole pops off and has like a micro universe in it that has all the information that it’s gathered. So it’s not lost. It’s just somewhere else. And somewhere else that we can’t get to. Um, yeah,

Tom:                      that’d be very… agghhh… It’s just something that I doubt maybe as you say? We’ll ever know, yeah, it’s because it’s so mysterious. It’s so like, oh, that’s the interesting stuff.

Mitch:                   Yeah. That’s why it’s what is the reason they, it comes back to why it’s my favorite like thing in our universe. It’s because it’s the theories around it just sounds they are so Sci-fi, well they’re not Scifi. Would it be science fiction? They don’t know.

Tom:                      They are. And they’re not because, because there such objects of mystery they used in Sci-fi a lot, but the concepts actually are very much real. And something. I just thought of the power of a black hole. So you know, we think of the sun having a strong gravitational force, being able to hold in all these planets and everything. But then think about our solar system compared to the Milky Way Galaxy. How strong that black hole must be in the center to keep all of the stars in check.

Mitch:                   One of the facts I really like about back is when people are like, oh well what happens if our son turned into a black hole? Cause like, well nothing. Wow. Apart from all the planets freezing over because the mass would be exactly the same and the gravitational pull would be the same. So our all bit wouldn’t change if our son suddenly turned into a black hole. The only thing would happen is Earth would freeze over over because there wouldn’t be any sunlight and there would be no heat.

Tom:                      How can the gravitational pull not change if it’s so gravitational is strong that it pulls even light in?

Mitch:                   Because uh, we’d be, we won’t be past the event horizon and the mass is the same. The mass would be the same, more of both

Tom:                      Then, how would you explain stars being spaghetti’d?

Mitch:                   Because the, cause the gravitation pull because the mass of those, black hole’s is great enough to pull it in.

Tom:                      So at the beginning of its life it wouldn’t?

Mitch:                   yeah. Well yeah, eventually it things get pulled in, but for like so the way, that is a very clever way that I think was it like, Kurze… , What is that Youtube channel called?

Tom:                      Kurzgesagt?

Mitch:                   Kurzgesagt yeah. Is the way they, they explained it is if you’re um, swimming in a river that’s got a waterfall at the end of it, um, you’d be swimming and you wouldn’t know that you’re being pulled towards of waterfall until it was too late and then you couldn’t turn around and get away from it. That is what they use. So the earth and all would be orbiting and that would be the swimming and we’d be fine until obviously one thing gets sucked into it. It would, it would be enough to stop. Pull the rest in. Yeah. I know you said about the, the power and it’s one of, uh, solve the more abstract theories is that, uh, you can use black holes for energy.

Tom:                      Okay. Kind of like a Dyson sphere thing?

Mitch:                   Yeah. So you put like a, a cage around a black hole with a, like a mirrors and you fire light around the outside of the event horizon.

Tom:                      Oh I watched a weird ted talk on this.

Mitch:                   Yeah. So, and then bends rounds and gains speed as far as it goes. Because if you, instead of going straight at it, if you fight it around, it would have enough energy to escape it. Obviously you lose energy as it’s going round, but it potentially could gain it. And if it had this in a big mirror-ball, it would eventually just the light and the photons would speed up infinitely and you can either use it for energy or just use it as a death star.

Tom:                      Huh. Death star it is. We all know how that’s going to go down.

Mitch:                   Kinda like the idea of a deathstar

Tom:                      Yeah. That’s pretty cool. Yeah. Um, there is a planet, I think it’s a moon of Saturn that looks exactly like the death star because its got a massive asteroid impact that has planted a circle that basically looks exactly like a death star.

Mitch:                   You could have made the joke of that same moon. Like I feel like that’s a,

Tom:                      I was trying to lead into that and then I kind of got lost because I was just picturing the death star so much. I was like, that’s no moon. That’s a space station

Mitch:                   Apart from it is a moon That’s no space station. [Laughter].

Tom:                      That’s a moon. [Laughter]. Bringing it back slightly because we are well over the hour now too. I just want to mention one more thing before we kind of wrap up slightly. So apart from the black hole picture thing, I say the other biggest space exploration discovery this century has to be Enceladus a, do you know Enceladus?

Mitch:                   A not by name

Tom:                      So Enceladus is a small moon all Saturn. It’s about the size of the U K spherical. That makes sense. Yeah. Like top to bottom is the length of the UK, but diameter is the same length as the UK? Yeah. Okay. Got It. Um, so the small moon of Saturn and the voyage of space probe, one of the original obviously went out in the 70s, right? 77, the voyager space probes, uh, to the outer solar system as it went past. It took a picture of Enceladus and it quite a blurry picture, but they, you know, it’s big enough to be round, but they realized that it’s like a smudge on one side. They’re like, this is strange, but they couldn’t figure out what it was until Cassini got there. A good, I think 20 years later it took a much better picture cause Cassini specifically went to Saturn whereas voyager was voyaging through the outer solar system and on in to the Kuiper field and it took a picture of Enceladus and realized that it’s an icy planet. It’s got three big, what they call the tiger stripes big massive canyons of ice inside. And out of the South Pole ejects massive geysers of water ejecting ice and water hundreds of miles into the app, the into this into space. So they’re like, firstly, okay, how is there water on a small moon? And that’s because it isn’t an elliptical orbit around Saturn, which is stretching the inside of the planet. It’s called tidal heating and it kind of melts the core and they think there’s a 200 kilometer deep ocean under this thick layer of ice. So they sent Cassini into the plumes quite dangerously, but they thought it was worth it and they found three incredible things. Firstly, it was salt water and salt that is very similar to the level of some lakes on earth, if not the same. Secondly, they found complex organic molecules, the building blocks essentially for life in these. And thirdly, they found silicate particles. And that’s important if we accept the current theory that life formed around Hydrothermic Vents, hydrothermal vents, because that is possibly the only place we know that silicate particles can form, which means and sell it as has hydrothermal vents, which means possibly it could harbor life right now. The problem is we don’t know how long Enceladus has been around and if it takes billions, millions of years, maybe it doesn’t yet.

Mitch:                   It could,

Tom:                      but it could. And that I think is so exciting.

Mitch:                   Do you know what they called the, the investigation for this?

Tom:                      No.

Mitch:                   They called it LIFE.

Tom:                      They called it LIFE?

Mitch:                   The Light Investifation for Enceladus.

Tom:                      Enceladus.

Mitch:                   Enceladus. That’s it. The life investigation for Enceladus. Called LIFE.

Tom:                      LIFE. That makes sense. And that’s a good acronym. Well done. NASA or whoever did that. Yeah. That is actually incredible. Just a thing that one day, you know, it could be a thing like, and the, the big implication of that, I guess I probably shouldn’t leave this out. The big implication is if life has, we find a second genesis, whether it’s here or on Mars, which is very likely too giving everything that the curiosity rover is found, all the organic and hydrothermal event evidence again, and we know it had running water and we know it’s got lots of ice. So if we find the proof of the second genesis of life, we can then assume that life isn’t as special as we thought and that it is kind of likely to be abundant in our universe. And that will have profound social and scientific impacts. Oh, I can tell. I’ve been watching a lot of Brian Cox, I mean saying words like profound [Laughter]. [awful Mancunian accents ensues:] And if we look at the universe, it’s millions and billions of years old.

Mitch:                   I’m not sure id that’s offensive towards him or not

Tom:                      Definitely get him on the show. Now I have a question for you actually. So this whole space x thing going to Mars by 2025. One way ticket. Would you take it? If he came up to your door now and he was like, Yo, we have this opportunity for you to come to Mars, be one of the pioneers, the founding fathers of a Martian colony, but it’s one way, are you coming?

Mitch:                   I Dunno. It seems like a lot of Admin doesn’t it?

Tom:                      What if he’s like, I cover all the admin. If you’re talking about paperwork.

Mitch:                   No, no, no. It’s really like, it’s a like a little hassle. It’s a lot of admin.

Tom:                      Okay, I see what you mean. Yeah, a lot of groundwork

Mitch:                   Yeah a lot of groundwork. Yeah. I’m like, I don’t know if I would say yes or not you. It is pretty much just being like, all right guys, I’m going to go off to die. Um, nice knowing you.

Tom:                      And what if you, like ‘cos you can’t choose who you’re going with. Right? Knowing my luck, I would get stuck with someone I absolutely do not get on with and I’m like, Oh God, I literally have to spend the rest of my life with this person.

Mitch:                   Like, isn’t it, there’s one person of each nationality isn’t there? Was the idea.

Tom:                      I don’t know how many tickets, uh, space X were aiming for

Mitch:                   yeah they wanted to like get one of each different nationality. Imagine if you stuck with like a xenophobe

Tom:                      uh, well you’d hope that they wouldn’t apply or be let on. You’d heard they have some kind of semi-solid screaming, screaming? Screenings structure. But then it is private so…

Mitch:                   but I wouldn’t have any of the right skills for it Tom so I’m not sure if I would ever get accepted

Tom:                      Well programming or cybersecurity can be very important. You know, when they’re, all the shops are starting up, you need a good cyber security infrastructure so you’re not getting hacked from Earth. [Laughter]. Um, so yeah, I don’t know if I’d go either to be there. It’d be very interesting. However, in this kind of like, you know, when I was younger I was always like yeah I do that, I do that. And then I kind of grew up and realized like don’t hate everyone [Laughter].

Mitch:                   [Laughter]. That period of life where you just hate everyone.

Tom:                      Yeah. So now I realize I don’t hear everyone. Um I’m a bit less tempted to go but I’ve got, it would be interesting. But you know, you know, there’s a lack of internet, you know, you’re taking a Nintendo switch and it would run out after a few days.

Mitch:                   Well no, cos there’s power Tom isn’t there?

Tom:                      You don’t want to waste like guys, we’ve, we’ve run out of power. Um, we’re going to crash into Mars.

Mitch:                   We run out of power. The Sun’s turned off. That’s not how it works!

Tom:                      The Sun’s turned off? You turning the sun off?

Mitch:                   Well yeah cause you said he brought a power. They use solar cells to charge things. Cause that’s, if you didn’t know, if you didn’t know taking this back to, to Mars, uh, the Mariner-2, which came before the Mariner-4, which is the one that landed on Mars. Um, when it got into interplanetary space, it couldn’t eject, it’s protective shrouding from the launch, which meant that it couldn’t get, it’s the solar cells to deploy so it couldn’t recharge the batteries. So it died.

Tom:                      Oh, that sucks. Have you read The Martian?

Mitch:                   I’ve watched it. I’ve seen the film. I haven’t read

Tom:                      The book the book is amazing. So much better than the film. I mean I do like the film. I do like the film was good, but it just leaves out so much. And the book, the guy who writ it, um, whose name escapes me right now yep wrote it, sorry, whose name is ? I nearly said Douglas Adams but it’s not Douglas Adams that was hitchhikers. Either way. The guy who wrote it was on reddit everyday talking with as he put it, the physics nerds and they were telling him everything that would be possible. So everything that was written in the book is scientifically possible with today’s well I guess tomorrow’s equipment. Um, so that was very interesting and definitely worth a read, uh, or watching the film if you’re into it. Very good. How do you think you would survive in that situation. How long would you give yourself? Are you going to make an off? Are you a Mark Watney? Watney was it Whitney?

Mitch:                   Um, I probably would. Ah, oh, I don’t know. Cause you go through training don’t you?

Tom:                      Yeah, yeah. You go through training and like protocols It was lucky there is a botanist. Yes. And he knew how to grow plants. I think that was his saving grace.

Mitch:                   Yeah. I think that’s probably where I’d fall down. I probably would have starved to death when I wouldn’t have been able to grow. Wouldn’t have thought to grow the potatoes. Uh, well as this is as, this is a two part episode, uh, we’ll continue to talk about more space things in the next one.

Tom:                      Yeah, no, I was thinking that exactly. We can do the future of humanity or space exploration, that kind of thing. Um, yeah. Find out next week I guess decide in the interim and you’ll find out next week.

Mitch:                   Yeah, we’ll talk about more theories I guess about things cause I would like to talk about the doppler effect and how important it is to astronomers.

Tom:                      Okay. We’ll, we’ll do a space solar system part two because I really want to mention more about this living on Mars because everything we can, we can do it now if we wanted, but we just don’t as a society. So yeah, we’ll wrap it up there. Thank you guys so much for listening. Once again, if you want to check out all the latest goings on, you can go to conductscience.com you can find us on Facebook and Twitter by searching @conductscience. And if you want to ask a question, so suggest a guest anything, use the #AskConductScience or just get in touch with us on any of these platforms. Yesterday I released the interview with Francesca Trotman, who’s a marine biologist and founding member of Love The Ocean’s a nonprofit charity in Mozambique. Check that out. That was super interesting, and just the stuff she’s doing out there is amazing. Next week, as we said, we’ll do a bit more of this solar system part two, but that’s all from us this week. So we’ll see you guys…A-Next time

Mitch:                   Ciao for now!

PodcastPodcast: Method Section
November 20, 2019

The Method Section: What we Believe

The Method Section: P-Values 00:00 – Intro 03:04 – Magenta isn’t real 04:02 – Superstitious behaviour 07:16 – Trust 10:01 – Environmental responsibility and recycling 13:35 – Bargaining behaviour and fairness 15:24 – Ending and outro   You can listen to The Method Section by using the player above, searching…
PodcastPodcast: Method Section
November 12, 2019

The Method Section: P-Values

The Method Section: P-Values 00:00 – Intro 02:41 – P-values 04:26 – What is a p-value? 13:07 – P-hacking 16:06 – Common p-value mistakes 21:40 – Ending and outro You can listen to The Method Section by using the player above, searching for "The Conduct Science Podcast" on any place…