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Anjali Singh Author
Anjali Singh is a freelance writer. Following her passion for science and research she did her Master’s in Plant Biology and Biotechnology from the University of Hyderabad, India. She has a strong research background in Plant Sciences with expertise in Molecular techniques, Tissue culture, and Biochemical Assays. In her free time outside work, she likes to read fictional books, sketch, or write poems. In the future, she aspires to pursue a doctorate in Cancer Biology while continuing her excellence as a scientific writer.
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Anjali Singh Author
Anjali Singh is a freelance writer. Following her passion for science and research she did her Master’s in Plant Biology and Biotechnology from the University of Hyderabad, India. She has a strong research background in Plant Sciences with expertise in Molecular techniques, Tissue culture, and Biochemical Assays. In her free time outside work, she likes to read fictional books, sketch, or write poems. In the future, she aspires to pursue a doctorate in Cancer Biology while continuing her excellence as a scientific writer.
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  • Biomolecules
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Introduction

The human body is composed of roughly 30 trillion cells that collectively perform the essential functions of life. The cells can perform these life-sustaining tasks with the help of several organic molecules present in them. These organic molecules are referred to as biomolecules.

The biomolecules have a wide range of sizes and structures, and they are involved in a vast array of life functions. They are composed of more than 25 naturally occurring elements, with the primary elements being carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur.[1] Carbon compounds have major involvement in the formation of biomolecules. They covalently bind with other elements to form several other compounds. Some biomolecules are considered derivatives of hydrocarbons, they’re formed by replacing hydrogen atoms from functional groups like alcohols, amines, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic groups.[1]

Given below is a list of small biomolecules and the macromolecules that are formed after the polymerization of these small monomer units.[1]

Small Biomolecules Macromolecules
Sugars Carbohydrates
Fatty acids Fats/lipids
Amino acids Proteins
Nucleotides Nucleic acids

 

This article briefly explains the major biomolecules and the functions they perform in our bodies.

Four Major Types of Biomolecules

Approximately 10,000 to 100,000 molecules are present in a cell to regulate bodily function. But the four major types of biomolecules include carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Most of the other compounds are derivatives of these major primary compounds. Every biomolecule has its characteristics and is designated to perform some specific function essential for life. So, let’s see what they are all about!!!

1. Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are a vital part of a healthy diet. They provide the energy required to do work. Scientifically, it’s a polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketone.[1] Carbohydrates are the most abundant biomolecules on earth.

Types of Carbohydrates and Their Functions

Depending on the number of products formed after hydrolysis, carbohydrates are classified into three groups.[1]

A. Monosaccharides: These are composed of a single unit of polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone. Monosaccharides are colorless, crystalline solids that are completely soluble in water.[1] They are involved in generating energy for the body.  Examples include glu