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Protocols
November 8, 2019

Quinolinic acid rat HD model

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited autosomal dominant neuropathological disease caused by a mutation in the huntingtin gene (htt). Preclinical animal models are necessary for the study of HD and the development of therapeutic interventions for the disease. Ideally, an animal model should demonstrate all the behavioral and neuropathological characteristics…
Protocols
November 7, 2019

3-Nitropreopionic acid Huntington’s disease model

3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a selective striatal neurotoxin used in rodents to mimic pathological features of Huntington’s disease. 3-Nitropropionic acid interrupts with the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This mycotoxin is an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, an enzyme responsible for the oxidation of succinate to fumarate. This process reduces ATP production…
Weight Drop Injury Model
Protocols
September 14, 2019

Weight Drop Injury Model

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common brain injuries caused by an external impact or pressure, such as rapid acceleration or deceleration, crushing, and projectile penetration. Following TBI, cognitive, physical, and psychosocial functions are impaired depending on the severity of the injury. To investigate TBI, several animal…
6-OHDA rat models
ProtocolsScience
September 13, 2019

6-OHDA rat models

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurological disorder that is characterized by debilitating motor abnormalities, including muscle rigidity, resting tumor, stiffer voluntary movements, and postural instability. Primary neuropathological condition of PD includes progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal area. Experimental models of PD are specifically designed…
Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury
ProtocolsScience
September 13, 2019

Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury

The use of animal models for studying traumatic brain injury (TBI) has several advantages, including low breeding cost, easy maintenance, and innovative techniques to create genetically modified strains. Rodent models provide powerful tools to screen and characterize putative therapeutic targets in TBI. These models efficiently recapitulate several clinical features of…
Rodent Craniotomy Protocol
ProtocolsScience
September 13, 2019

Rodent Craniotomy Protocol

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure used to temporarily open a part of the skull to expose the brain for experimental manipulations. Research developments over the past two decades have made craniotomy safer, simpler, and more successful. In craniotomy, a bone flap is removed from the skull to reach the…
Controlled Cortical Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury
Protocols
September 13, 2019

Controlled Cortical Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is referred to as alteration or dysfunctionality in brain function, or brain pathology resulted by external trauma or force. TBI is a serious health condition because of its complexity and wide-reaching effects, including lesions, necrosis, and axon degeneration. Research on traumatic brain injury has been challenging…
Fluid Percussion Injury
Protocols
September 12, 2019

Fluid Percussion Injury

The fluid percussion injury (FPI) model is a widely used study model for traumatic brain injury. FPI model produces an injury through a craniectomy by applying a momentary fluid pressure pulse on to the exposed dura. This pulse is created by a pendulum striking to the piston of the fluid…
HuntingtonÔÇÖs-Disease-Rodent-Models
Protocols
September 12, 2019

Huntington’s Disease Rodent Models

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited genetic neurological disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction, abnormal body movements, and progressive cell death and neurodegeneration of the striatum and cerebral cortex. HD is a dominantly inherited disorder caused by a genetic mutation in the IT15 gene. This mutation is an abnormally expanded and…
ParkinsonÔÇÖs-Disease-Rat-Models
Protocols
September 12, 2019

Parkinson’s Disease Rat Models

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of 50% to 70% of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), loss of dopamine (DA) in the striatum, and the development of intracytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies (LB), composed of α-synuclein and ubiquitin. α-synuclein…