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Laboratory TechniquesScience
February 24, 2020

Spin-Spin coupling in NMR

The structure of a molecule can be predicted using NMR spectroscopy. However, the interpretation of the signals in an NMR spectrum relies on several factors. One of the factors affecting the location of the peaks in an NMR spectrum is Chemical shift. The location of the peaks is important in…
Laboratory TechniquesScience
February 17, 2020

Histochemical techniques to demonstrate Carbohydrates-Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates are the most abundant and one of the four essential macromolecules, required for the survival of living beings. Structurally, these are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. Carbohydrates are divided into three classes depending upon the number of forming units (aldehyde or ketone), which are monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. These carbohydrates…
method section by Conduct Science
PodcastPodcast: Method Section
February 12, 2020

The Method Section: CRISPR

The Method Section: CRISPR 00:00 - Intro 02:54 - What is CRISPR and Cas-9? 06:23 - How CRISPR Cas-9 works 10:58 - CRISPR applications 12:58 - Enhancements 15:56 - Ending and Outro You can listen to The Method Section by using the player above, searching for "The Conduct Science Podcast"…
Laboratory Techniques
February 11, 2020

Histochemical demonstration of Acidic Compounds

Introduction The cell is composed of molecules of different chemical nature, whether they are acidic, basic, or neutral, all contribute to the functioning of the cell. Here, we will discuss the histochemical methods used to demonstrate the acidic components of the cell which mainly include nucleic acids and some other…
Lab Basics
February 11, 2020

Made for Spinning: The Centrifuge

Centrifuges - What Are They? Technically, any device that applies centrifugal force to objects by rotating them around a central axis might be called a centrifuge. Centrifuges are devices that apply high-speed spinning to objects, liquid or gas samples, to separate their individual components. Centrifuges contain a rotor where tubes…
Lab Basics
January 20, 2020

Stereo Microscopes: A Comprehensive Guide

Microscopes are sophisticated instruments used to see and analyze small specimens. With impressive optical and mechanical features, microscopes provide three-dimensional enlarged images of small objects and structures. They are used across a variety of settings, such as medicine, forensics, education, and geology. Depending on the research goals, microscopists can choose…
Lab Basics
January 20, 2020

Refracting Telescopes: A Complete Guide

Given the mysterious beauty of the endless cosmos, there’s no doubt that telescopes are among the most fascinating instruments in the field of science. Telescopes are essential devices that have enabled the study of the universe by providing magnified images of distant objects and structures. Interestingly, telescopes have undergone significant…
Lab Basics
January 20, 2020

Reflecting Telescopes: All You Need to Know

The history of telescopy is fascinating. The first telescope was invented in the 17th century. Note that it was spectacle-maker Hans Lippershey, who was credited as the inventor of the first refractor telescope and Galileo Galilei, who pointed the telescope towards the skies. Early refractor telescopes, however, suffered from chromatic…
Lab Basics
January 20, 2020

Portable and Handheld Telescopes: All You Need to Know

Telescopes have undergone significant transformations since the 17th century - or when the first refractor telescope was invented. Note that spectacle-maker Hans Lippershey was credited as the inventor of the telescope and Galileo Galilei as the scientist who pointed the telescope towards the skies. In 1668 Sir Isaac Newton created…
Lab Basics
January 20, 2020

Magnifiers: All You Need to Know

Magnifiers are defined as instruments that enlarge the size of images. Interestingly, the phenomenon of magnification was highly valued in the ancient world. In Ancient Egypt and Rome, for instance, people used crystals and gemstones to view small objects or images; the magnifying glass was also used to ignite paper.…
Lab Basics
January 20, 2020

Digital Microscopes: A Complete Guide

From full-size units to pocket models, microscopes are complex tools that facilitate the analysis of small objects and structures across various settings, such as medicine, education, engineering, and manufacturing. Microscopes are based on the phenomenon of magnification, highly valued in the ancient world. Note that it was in the 13th…
Lab Basics
January 20, 2020

Catadioptric Telescopes: A Complete Guide

While both reflecting and refracting models continued improving over the years, advancements in lens technology outside the field of telescopy led to the development of the catadioptric telescope - a combination of refracting (lenses) and reflecting (mirrors) optics. To provide an example, in 1820, physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel developed the prominent…
Lab Basics
January 20, 2020

Binoculars: A Complete Guide

Binoculars are versatile tools that provide enlarged images of distant objects. Note that binoculars are made of two telescopes mounted on a single frame, which allows the use of both eyes. The design of binoculars has evolved significantly over the centuries. Although the phenomenon of magnification was highly valued in…
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