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Membranes
Membranes

Liposomes: Structure, Classification, and Applications

Introduction Medical advancements are an essential requirement in today’s world to reduce the financial burden of diseases and safeguard the healthcare systems. For diseases like cancer, better drug delivery approaches, diagnostic methods, and treatment options are required to save more patients and enhance their quality of life. One such approach developed — being tested, and applied in some disease cases

Photosynthesis-and-Respiration
Photosynthesis and Respiration

Introduction to Bioenergetics

Bioenergetics is a branch of biochemistry that focuses on energy and energy supply in biological systems. The term first originated as the title of a 1957 novel written by the Nobel laureate Albert Szent-Györgyi.  It is the expansion of the chemiosmotic theory postulated in 1961, which originally explains how the generation and breakdown of the cellular energy currency, adenosine triphosphate

Membranes
Membranes

Factors Affecting Cell Membrane Permeability and Fluidity

Introduction Do you wonder how molecules are transported inside cells? The transport of molecules across the cell membrane or in the cell follows two pathways: passive transport and active transport. Active transport is the transport of molecules against a concentration gradient across the cell membrane using transport proteins and energy. In contrast, passive transport is a direct transfer of molecules

Biomolecules
Biomolecules

Structure and Functions of Proteins

Introduction Have you ever thought about why athletes or gymnasts are often on a protein-rich diet? It’s because these people expend more energy compared to people who don’t work out. And a diet rich in proteins fuels the body to build muscle, promote quick recovery, boost immunity, replenish glycogen, and burn fat, all of which are important during strenuous workouts.

Enzymology
Enzymology

Steps and Factors Affecting Enzyme Purification

Introduction The goal of enzyme purification is to obtain a substantial amount of a specific enzyme while conserving its function in vivo. Enzyme purification consists of three phases, which can be elaborated into four general steps. Depending on the physical and chemical properties, downstream application and the source of the target enzyme, each enzyme requires its unique purification strategy. This

Biomolecules
Biomolecules

Structure, Classification, and Functions of Carbohydrates

Introduction Living organisms require biomolecules for several biological processes like energy storage and regulation of their metabolic cycles. Among all, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins are the four major biomolecules (or macromolecules) that are mainly involved in these biological processes. The functions of carbohydrates are essential for life in all organisms, from microorganisms to plants and humans. They are

Membranes
Membranes

Active Transport: Definition, Types, and Examples

Introduction The membrane’s ability to control the transport of materials across the membrane is one of the essential life processes in organisms. The membrane determines what solutes shall enter or leave the cell, which involves complex structures functioning in the transfer of molecules across the membrane. And any mutation or malfunction in this transport mechanism leads to severe life-threatening diseases.

Enzymology
Enzymology

Site-Directed Mutagenesis: Methods and Applications

Site-directed mutagenesis is a technique conceived in the 70s used to mutate specific DNA sequences in vitro. It relies on synthetic short single-stranded DNA fragments, or oligonucleotides, that contain designated mutations to act as templates in the presence of DNA polymerase enzyme. In the late 80s, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), another laboratory technique, was incorporated into site-directed mutagenesis workflow. The

Enzymology
Enzymology

Factors That Affects Enzyme Activity

Enzymes are a group of proteins that catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in any biological system. In an organism, enzymes function as a group of interconnected chemical reactions in a metabolic pathway, fulfilling a specific cellular task. Metabolic pathways are active under normal circumstances and alter their activities in response to internal and external stimuli. Delayed response or failure to answer