The APA is a circular metal arena shock grid underneath a rotating arena. The subjects are allowed to explore the arena while avoiding a prohibited sector using visual cues in and around the arena. Punishment in the form of shock is delivered to the subject if it enters the prohibited sector. Passive avoidance is observed when the arena is not rotating while active avoidance is observed when the arena is rotating.
Anesthetic Vaporizers are used in the administration of volatile anesthetics. The device works by controlling the vaporization of the liquid anesthetic agent and delivering a reliable concentration to the subject.
The traditional eight radial arm maze has many variants that allow mice, rats, and even primates to display their spatial working memory for the arms that they have visited by avoiding re-entry.
Typically, they do so by relying on their memory for the spatial location of visited arms relative to extra maze landmarks in the testing environment. Extramaze and intramaze cues are key to this process.